Manding Non-Verbal Copula Correspondences

Below are some non-comprehensive correspondence tables for non-verbal copula constructions across the four major Manding varieties.

To discuss the contents of this topic and table, please use the dedicated discussion topic.

Marker Bambara Jula Maninka Mandinka Examples
Presentative don lo le le mu Sa don
Sa lo
Sa le
Saa le mu

“It’s a snake”
Qualitative (Verbs) ka/man ka/man ka/man * N ka kɛnɛ
N ka kɛnɛ
N ka kɛndɛ
(N kendeyaata le)

‘I am healthy’
Equative ye … ye ye … ye ye … (le) di mu… (le) ti Adama ye karamɔgɔ ye
Adama ye karamɔgɔ ye
Adama ye karamɔɔ di
Adama mu karamoo ti

‘Adama is a teacher’
Situative ye be Sita bɛ yan
Sita bɛ yan
Sita ye yan
Sita be jaŋ

‘Sita is here’


  • Bambara = standard Malian Bambara
  • Jula = standard Burkinabè Jula
  • Maninka = standard Guinean Maninka
  • Mandinka = standard Senegambian Mandinka
  • * = absent

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